# Introduction¶

DAEpy is a Python library for solving boundary value problems of differential algebraic equations with advanced and retarded (forward and backward) delays. It also contains routines for parameter continuation. The numerical method is based on collocation. The source code is available on Github.

This library was developed at LCVMM. If you find it useful, please cite it [BibTeX]:

Alastair Flynn. DAEpy: a Python library for solving boundary value problems of differential algebraic equations with advanced and retarded (forward and backward) delays. version 1.0.1. LCVMM, EPFL. 2019. url: https://lcvmwww.epfl.ch/software/daepy/.

# Installation¶

DAEpy can be installed using pip.

pip install daepy


This will install DAEpy and all its dependencies. It is recommended, but not necessary, to also install scikit-umfpack which contains a routine for solving sparse linear systems.

pip install scikit-umfpack


# Usage¶

The user must define their system by a Python class. A template class can be imported by

from daepy import DAETemplate


A problem definition class should look as follows:

class DAE():
def __init__(self, parameter):
self.N = 2
self.dindex = 
self.aindex = 
self.parameter = parameter

def fun(self, x, y, transform):
...
return f

def bv(self, y, transform):
...
return b

def jacobian(self, x, y, transform):
...
return dfdy, dfdt

def bv_jacobian(self, y, transform):
...
return dbdy, dbdt

def update_parameter(self, p):
self.parameter = p

def parameter_jacobian(self, x, y):
...
return dfdp, dbdp


Every problem definition must define the attributes

• N the dimension of the system

• dindex the indices of the differential variables

• aindex the indices of the algebraic variables

and the methods

The class may also define the methods

All six methods must be defined for parameter continuation. You can of course define your own attributes and methods as well. The BVPSolution class has several methods to aid construction of jacobians.

Note

The system must reduced to first order. Differential variables are variables whose derivative appears in the system and algebraic variables are variables whose derivative does not appear. See numerical method for more details.

Once a problem definition has been written, the BVP class is used to construct and solve the nonlinear system

from daepy import BVP
from mydae import DAE # problem definition saved as mydae.py

parameter = 2.0
dae = DAE(parameter)

bvp = BVP(dae, degree=3, intervals=10)
bvp.initial_guess([lambda x: 0, lambda x: 0], initial_interval=[0,1])

sol = bvp.solve()


The solution is a BVPSolution object. A continuation run can be performed using the continuation() method (it is not necessary to call solve() before continuation()).

# Examples¶

There is a basic usage example and a parameter continuation example.