# Basic usage example¶

We will solve the following system 1

$y'(t) = y(y(t)) + (3+\alpha) t^{2 + \alpha} - t^{(3 + \alpha)^2}$

where $$t \in [0,1]$$ and $$y(0) = 0$$.

First we must write the problem definition. It is rather long so it is not included here but on a separate page. Some methods of the BVPSolution class and some extra methods were used to help define the system.

Copy the problem definition and save it as test_system.py. We will solve the system for $$\alpha = 5$$. First, import the necessary modules, including the problem definition, and setup the problem.

import numpy as np
from test_system import DAE
from daepy import BVP
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

alpha = 5
dae = DAE(alpha)


Next we create a BVP class and give it an initial guess for the solution, in this case $$y(t) = 0$$.

degree = 3
intervals = 10
bvp = BVP(dae, degree, intervals)
bvp.initial_guess([lambda x: 0], initial_interval=[0,1])


Now we can solve the system.

sol = bvp.solve(method='nleqres', tol=1e-14, maxiter=100, disp=True)


Finally, we can plot the solution against the known analytic solution $$y(t) = t^{3+\alpha}$$.

l = np.linspace(0,1)
plt.plot(l, sol.eval(l))
plt.plot(l, l**(3+alpha), '--')

plt.legend(['Numerical solution', 'Analytical solution'])
plt.title('Basic usage example')
plt.show()


This should produce a plot like this. # Parameter continuation example¶

We will solve the same system as in the basic usage example but this time for $$\alpha$$ from 10 to 50 using parameter continuation. The setup is the same as before.

import numpy as np
from test_system import DAE
from daepy import BVP
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt

alpha = 10
dae = DAE(alpha)

degree = 3
intervals = 20
bvp = BVP(dae, degree, intervals)
bvp.initial_guess([lambda x: 0], initial_interval=[0,1])


Now we define a callback function which will plot the solution at each continuation step.

def callback(p, sol):
colour = (min((p-10)/40, 1.0), 0.0, max(1-(p-10)/40, 0.0))
l = np.linspace(0,1)
plt.plot(sol.forward(l), sol(l), color=colour) # plot using internal coordinate for smoother lines


Now can perform the parameter continuation.

steps = list(range(15,51,5))
bvp.continuation(alpha, method='pseudo_arclength', steps=steps, tol=1e-14, maxiter=100, disp=True, callback=callback)


In this example we gave the continuation steps explicitly as a list but it is also possible to just give a number of steps and a target value for the parameter. Finally, we show the plot we have made.

plt.legend([r'$\alpha =$' + str(s) for s in [alpha] + steps])
plt.title('Parameter continuation example')
plt.show()


This should produce a plot like this. 1
1. Tavernini, The Approximate Solution of Volterra Diff. Systems with State-Dependent Time Lags, SIAM J. Num. Anal. Vol. 15 (1978). 1039-1052